Samples Required

Time

Cost

Paternity Test-Mother unavailable

1. Father
2. Child

Order Online

5-7 days (Standard)

$260

3-day
(Priority)

$360

1-day
(Overnight)

$760

Paternity Test-Trio

1. Father
2. Child
3. Mother

Order Online


5-7 days (Standard)

$360

3-day
(Priority)

$460

1-day
(Overnight)

$860

Additional fees associated with prenatal testing

Amniotic Fluid*

Culturing Amniotic Fluid*

CVS Tissue

$25.00 (Fedex)

$150.00

$25.00 (Fedex)

*  We have a good (~97%) success rate directly using amniotic fluid for paternity testing. However, sometimes depending on the skill level of the physician, amniotic fluid can be contaminated with maternal cells. The contaminating maternal cells (DNA) will prevent the test from being completed.  If we culture the cells, the maternal cells will die leaving only a pure population of fetal cells that can be used for paternity testing.

Today pregnant women have a couple of choices concerning the genetic testing and parentage testing of their offspring.  Paternity testing can be performed before the birth of the child in conjunction with other medical or genetic screening such as Chronic Villus sampling (CVS) or Amniocentesis.

A problem you will encounter in attempting to use CVS or amniotic fluid is convincing your physician that you need this procedure performed for paternity testing. A physician is the only person that can acquire these samples. It is uncommon for a physician to acquire CVS or amniotic fluid to only for paternity.  One reason physicians are reluctant to acquire these sample is the fact that there is a slight risk of miscarriage associated with acquiring CVS or amniotic fluid (see below). The risk is small but it is not zero and most physicians are not willing to assume the risk to check for paternity.  It is an acceptable risk to assume when there is a need to check for genetic defects.

Paternity testing can be performed from umbilical cord blood collected at birth or even from the umbilical cord.  If a client wants this procedure to be performed, we will send a collection kit before the birth of the child. If necessary, the paternity test can be completed in one-day.  The alleged fatherís samples can be collected before or after the birth of the child.  Buccal cells (cheek cells) are also a good source of DNA and can be taken immediately after birth.

Maternal age-related risk for fetal aneuploidy (such as Down Syndrome) and single-gene defects are the main reason for undergoing a CVS or amniocentesis. In the United States, 19% of women who underwent CVS were <35 years of age. DNA-based diagnoses of single-gene defects, such as cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, muscular dystrophy, and hemoglobinopathies, can be made by direct analysis of uncultured chorionic villus cells (a more efficient method than culturing amniocytes). However, amniocentesis is particularly useful to prospective parents who have a family history of neural tube defects, because alphafetoprotein (AFP) testing can be done on amniotic fluid but cannot be done on CVS specimens.

Chorionic Villus Sampling
CVS is best performed between 10 and 12 weeks gestation, and is done either transabdominally or transcervically depending on where the placenta is located.  CVS utilizes either a catheter or needle to biopsy placental cells by inserting a needle (abdominally) or a catheter (cervically) into the substance of the placenta but staying outside the amniotic sac.  Then suction is applied with a syringe and about 10-15 milligrams of tissue are aspirated into the syringe. This tissue is manually cleaned of maternal uterine tissue, then grown in culture and tested for genetic abnormalities and paternity if needed. CVS carries a small risk of miscarriage of is approximately 0.5%-1.0% (1/200-1/100), according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). CVS is generally done earlier in pregnancy than amniocentesis and is particularly advantageous for detecting certain genetic conditions and will allow prospective parents to make this decision earlier than will amniocentesis.

Amniocentesis
Like CVS, amniocentesis can detect several serious genetic abnormalities. Amniocentesis is a procedure that removes some of the amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus.  This fluid contains cells that are shed primarily from the fetal skin, bladder, gastrointestinal tract, and amnion. During amniocentesis, a hollow needle through the abdominal wall into the uterus and withdrawing a small amount of fluid from the sac surrounding the fetus under ultrasound guidance. The cells can be cultured and tested for genetic abnormalities and paternity.  Amniocentesis is usually performed between the 15th and 18th weeks of pregnancy. But it can be performed as early the 12th week or as late as the 20th. Amniocentesis before the 14th week has been shown to carry a higher risk of miscarriage. Procedures are now being performed at 11-14 weeks gestation. Early amniocentesis (defined as <15 weeks gestation) remains investigational, because the safety of the procedure is currently being evaluated with controlled trials.

By the second trimester, enough amniotic fluid surrounds the fetus that an adequate sample can be extracted without putting the fetus at risk.

Although it has many diagnostic benefits, the procedure also carries a slight risk of miscarriage about 0.25 - 0.5% (1/400-1/200), as well as a risk of trauma to the fetus, infection and preterm labor.

It should be noted that these procedures are performed by an obstetrician or doctor and have risk associated with them.  Paternity testing can be done in conjunction with other procedures.  However, we do not recommend any of these procedures solely for the determination of paternity but if you are going to undergo one of these procedures we can make arrangements with your physician to do determine paternity.

 

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