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Who can benefit?

  • Paternity testing can assist a woman seeking child support from a man who denies he is the child's father.
  • Paternity testing can help a man attempting to win custody or visitation.
  • Paternity testing is for a man wanting to confirm paternity of his child(ren) for peace of mind.
  • An adopted child seeking his/her biological family can utilize a paternity test for conclusive proof.
  • Paternity testing can assist a person seeking to identify one parent when the other parent is deceased or missing.
  • DNA Paternity testing can be used by someone wanting to determine grandparentage, inheritance rights, insurance claims, or Social Security benefits.
  • Immigration. A DNA paternity test can help a person seeking entry into the U. S. on the grounds that she/he is a biological relative of a citizen.
    • Many immigrants to the United States have relatives who eventually wish to join them. It has, however, become increasingly difficult for them to do so unless they can provide scientific proof of their genetic relationships.  The U.S. Department of Justice  Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS) will only accept DNA testing from laboratories which have been approved by INS. Genetic Identity’s reference laboratory is an approved laboratory.

DNA Paternity testing can also assist with:

  1. Someone seeking to establish Native American Tribal Rights.
  2. DNA Profiling - Allele sizing is performed for an individual who wants to have a permanent record of his/her DNA. 
  3. An individual trying to determine the likelihood of being the biological sibling of a long lost sister or brother.
  4. Twin Zygosity - Twin siblings trying to determine if they are identical twins or fraternal twins.
  5. Someone who has received inconclusive results from other testing methods or seeking a "second opinion"

What is the difference between a personal paternity test and our legal paternity screening test?
The sample collection in a personal paternity screening tests are completed by the individuals involved in the test in the privacy of the homes.  The photographs, finger printing and strict chain of custody are not implemented thus making the results inadmissible in a court of law.  The alleles (genes) examined, accuracy, and the results are identical to the legal paternity test.  The personal paternity screening test is for circumstances where legal proceedings are not needed.  The results of a personal paternity screening test can not be used in a court of law. 

What is a buccal swab?
A buccal
(Pronunciation ) swab is a specialized applicator with a sponge or Dacron tip, which is rubbed on the inside of the check to collect epithelial cells.  This procedure is noninvasive and pain free.

Are there differences in test results obtained using buccal swabs versus blood or other tissues?
No, DNA test results are the same because the DNA is the same in all nucleated cells of a person’s body.  We use the most readily available source of DNA for paternity testing.  The DNA we use is located inside the mouth, buccal cells. Every cell in body, except for red blood cells, contains the same DNA.  Red bloods do not contain DNA.  All DNA containing cells, including cells from buccal swabs, hair follicles and urine specimens, are suitable specimens for DNA analysis (1-3).  In 2000, out of 662,567 total samples reported processed for DNA, (80%) represented buccal swabs whereas 132,851 (20%) represented blood samples (4).

1.  Thomson DM, Brown NN, Clague AE. Routine use of hair root or buccal swab specimens for PCR analysis: advantages over using blood. Clin Chim Acta 1992; 207:169-174.
2.  Richards B, Skolestsky J, Shuber AP, Balfour R, Stern RC, Dorkin HL, Parad RB, Witt D, Klinger KW. Multiplex PCR amplification from the CRTR gene using DNA prepared from buccal brushes swabs. Hum Mol Gen 1993; 2:159-163.
3.  Hayney MS, Poland GA, Lipsky JJ. A noninvasive "swish and spit" method for collecting  nucleated cells for HLA typing by PCR in population studies. Hum Hered 1996; 46:108-111.
4. ANNUAL REPORT SUMMARY FOR 2000, American Association of Blood Banks.

Are buccal swabs samples contaminated because they are taken from the mouth?
No, the swabs may contain bacteria and food but the tests are very specific for human DNA.  The DNA from bacteria, food, or other organisms will not affect the tests.

Are there age limits on paternity testing?
No, the collection of umbilical cord blood at birth and the use of buccal swabs allow for testing at any age.

Are the results admissible in court?
Yes, the identification, (photos and fingerprints), strict chain of custody and documented procedures produce results that are admissible in a court of law.  In addition, expert witness services can be arranged.

Are the test results and samples confidential?
Yes, all client information as well as the test results are strictly confidential.  No information is released except to persons directly involved in the test or to courts or regulatory agencies. 

How do I pay for the tests?
Tests can be paid for by Money Order, Discover, Master Card, American Express or Visa.

Can blood group types be used to determine paternity?
No, blood group typing can only exclude a potential father.  It can not be used to prove paternity. See Table 1.

Table 1. Possible blood type matings.

Parent 1
Blood Type

Parent 2
Blood Type

Possible Blood Types

Impossible Blood Types

O

O

O

A, B, AB

O

A

A, O

B, AB

O

B

O, B

A, AB

O

AB

A, B

O, AB

A

A

A, O

B, AB

A

B

A, AB, B, O

 

A

AB

A, AB, B

O

B

B

B,O

A, AB

B

AB

A, AB, B

O

AB

AB

A, AB, B

O

 

 

 

 

 


 

Rh Factor (Positive/Negative)

Rh Factor

Genotypes

Rh +
Positve

Rh+/Rh+
Rh+/Rh-

Rh -
Negativ e

Rh-/Rh-

The Rh factor genetic information is also inherited from our parents, but it is inherited independently of the ABO blood type alleles. There are 2 different alleles for the Rh factor known as Rh+ and Rh-. Someone who is "Rh positive","Rh+" or “+�? has at least one Rh+ allele, but could have two. Their genotype could be either Rh+/Rh+ or Rh+/Rh-.  Someone who is “Rh negative“, “Rh-“ or “-“ has a genotype of Rh-/Rh-.

Mother

Father

Child

Rh-

Rh+

Rh+

Rh+

Rh-

Rh+

Rh-

Rh -

Rh-

Just like the ABO alleles, each biological parent donates one of their two Rh alleles to their child. A mother who is Rh- can only pass an Rh- allele to her son or daughter. A father who is Rh+ could pass either an Rh+ or Rh- allele to his son or daughter. This couple could have Rh+ children (Rh- from mother and Rh+ from father) or Rh- children (Rh- from mother and Rh- from father).

Can parentage be established for a deceased or missing individual?
Yes, if blood or tissues are collected postmortem and properly stored, the sample can be used by our laboratory for paternity testing.  If the alleged father's parents are available, they can be used in grandparentage testing.

Can parentage be established if the mother does not participate in the test?
Yes, DNA testing is so powerful that the mother does not have to participate in the test. 

Do samples from all parties have to be collected at the same time?
No, arrangements can be made to collect samples from people at different times and/or places. 

Can different types of specimens (e.g.,  blood and buccal swabs) be used in the same case?
Yes, DNA tests are the same because the DNA is the same in all nucleated cells of a person’s body. 

Can accurate results be obtained from brothers or related individuals of the alleged father?
Yes, the laboratory should be notified of circumstances involving relatives.  Although related individuals have similar genetic markers, additional testing can be performed until one man is excluded. 

What do I need to bring to the sample collection appointment?
Legal photo identification (e.g. drivers license, state I. D. card, passport) and Social Security Card (if applicable).

Can eye color indicate paternity?
No.  In humans, there are three genes that are known to control eye color. The expression of these three genes can explain typical patterns of inheritance of brown, green, and blue eye colors. However, they don't explain everything. Grey, hazel, multiple shades of blue, brown, green, and grey are not explained by these three genes.  The molecular basis of these genes is not known; what proteins they produce and how these proteins affect eye color are not known.  Eye color at birth is often blue turning, turning darker color as the child matures.  Why eye color can change over time is not known.  An additional gene for green is also postulated, and there are reports of blue-eyed parents producing brown-eyed children (which the three known genes can't easily explain [mutations, modifier genes that suppress brown, and additional brown genes are all potential explanations]).
Bottom line: Eye color can be VERY complicated.  If you are in doubt get a DNA test.

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